The posters will be available at any time from the AAIM Online lobby. The poster session will be held Tuesday, April 13, 2021, from noon to 1 PM EDT.

Programmatic Innovation

Select the section below to review the programmatic innovation posters in each topic area.


P004: Improving Accreditation Compliance with a Program Administrator Huddle Board

In addition to discussing the inception, execution, and results  of the Huddle Board, the poster will have an actual picture of the Huddle Board, Program Administrators meeting at the Huddle Board, and graphs to illustrate team improvements after the Huddle Board implementation.

Presenter: Shawn Guy-Pitts, Baylor University Medical Center


P034: Resident Retriever: A Machine Learning Approach to Screening Residency Applicants

Screening residency applications is time consuming and generally relies on simplistic “sortable” measures like USMLE scores. A multidisciplinary group of trainees, data scientists, and program directors at one institution developed a machine learning approach for automated pre-screening of residency applicants for interview. The model had good performance in discriminating candidates who were offered an interview through human review from those who were not. The machine learning model was then deployed with an interactive dashboard in parallel to human review in the current application cycle. The approach helps pre-screen candidates with low likelihood of invitation (screen out) as well as identify candidates who would otherwise have been screened out (screen in). This automated approach is generalizable to other programs and is resource sparing, permitting more holistic review.

Presenter: Jesse Rafel, MD, MRes, New York University School of Medicine

P055: Utilization of Instagram as a Primary Tool for Residency Recruitment

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique challenges to resident recruitment.  Given social distancing guidelines, and restrictions on travel and in-person gatherings, we sought to replace many functions of our in-person recruiting tools with the social media platform Instagram. Utilization of Instagram has allowed us to highlight the culture of our residency program and engage potential applicants who are unable to visit in-person. Based on our experience, we believe developing a social media presence is a low-cost, high-yield method to facilitate recruitment and promote resident camaraderie.

Presenter: Andrew Hwang, MD, , University of California, Riverside School of Medicine


P001: Making “Z” Grade: Calibrating Performance Grades Across the Clinical Year

Grading in the clinical years is difficult, complex and highly variable across institutions. The sense of grade inflation among clerkship directors has risen from 55 to 61% between 2012-16. Although many believe competency-based assessment using described behaviors is best, less than 50% of clerkships report faculty are adequately trained in evaluation of students. Another potential concern is the USMLE’s consideration of reporting only Pass/Fail grades. In order to combat grade inflation and appropriately stratify student performance, we wanted to implement a standardized scoring method to account for improved student performance across the academic year. To determine if summed, weighted z-scoring of graded clerkship components could adjust for the numeric grade score differences across the year, we compared students’ grades and rankings using traditional numeric scores and the summed, weighted z-score. We found the following: 1)  Numeric grade cutoffs for Honors and Excellent varied greatly across the year, 2) This variance impacted ranking despite equivalent letter grades, 3) There was no difference in z-score cutoffs for Honors and Excellent over the year, 4) this resulted in fewer Honors and Excellent grades, and 5) Ranking by z-score was not disparate due to rotational differences in scoring. This may implications for more equitable determination of student rankings and combating grade inflation.

Presenter: Joseph Wayne, MD, MPH, MACP, Albany Medical College

P006: Longitudinal QI: A Novel Med/Peds Residency Quality Improvement Curriculum

Given Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements and scheduling difficulties, our Med/Peds residency program developed a novel Med/Peds Quality Improvement (QI) curriculum. Implemented in 2017 and based on academic & industry examples, this longitudinal, team-based approach ensures resident education in QI methodologies. Initial aim was increased resident QI scholarly output with a long-term goal of > 70% residents reporting regular practice of QI on post-graduation surveys by 2022. The curriculum builds each PGY-year. The PGY-1 residents still participate in categorical introductory didactics. PGY-2 experience includes a novel, “mock QI project” where a Quality issue is identified, allowing instruction in QI methodologies in a low-stakes, longitudinal environment. With close mentorship from program leadership, they complete a 4-step worksheet and receive feedback to ensure understanding. The PGY-3 residents collectively complete a formal QI project. PGY-4 year, they can continue their projects and/or submit their data to academic meetings. This year, PGY-4 residents will newly participate in a capstone rotation in patient safety. Since implementation, three Med/Peds classes have completed mock projects and each graduating class has presented their project at a local academic conference. The 2018 class won a departmental award for QI and presented their data nationally. Post-intervention data from graduate surveys will be collected this summer. Residents enjoy the curriculum and provide continual feedback for improvement. They report subjectively increased understanding of diagramming root causes and designing interventions. Future steps will balance workload for program leadership, standardize didactics, and promote participation in Pediatric patient safety initiatives.

Presenter: Paul Shaniuk, MD, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine

P008: A Novel, Multi-disciplinary Curriculum to Improve Nutritional Assessment Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

Nutritional counseling is a necessary tool for the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. A needs assessment at Hofstra-Northwell revealed that 68% of our residents were ‘not’ or ‘minimally’ comfortable conducting a nutritional assessment. Lack of knowledge was identified as a primary barrier to performing these assessments. These observations led to the development of a novel, multi-disciplinary curriculum with the goal of increasing resident ability in conducting a nutritional assessment.

This curriculum was developed in collaboration with Internal Medicine Residents, Gastroenterology Faculty, and Registered Dieticians. We developed a three-part curriculum; a traditional lecture, a small-group case-based learning exercise, and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with directed feedback. The lecture reviewed components of the nutritional assessment, with emphasis on the dietary history, anthropomorphic data, and counseling techniques. Clinical cases were based on common clinical scenarios. Lastly, residents conducted a nutritional assessment with standardized patients using previously learned techniques and a standardized checklist.

Pre and post-intervention surveys evaluated for changes in provider comfort and perceived barriers for nutritional assessment and counselling. The proportion of residents who responded they were “quite comfortable” completing a nutritional assessment increased from 4.8% to 41.3% post survey, while the proportion who responded “not at all comfortable” decreased from 35.7% to 0%. The proportion of residents who found lack of individual knowledge as a barrier decreased from 60.5% to 42.5%. Residents cited “interactivity” and direct feedback as particularly useful.

This multidisciplinary curriculum was successful in increasing internal medicine resident comfort with conducting a nutritional assessment.

Presenter: Anita Ganti, MD, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra Northwell

P010: Implementation of a Longitudinal Leadership Development Curriculum for Med-Peds and Pediatric Residents

Residents develop clinical leadership skills, including team leadership abilities, relationship management, emotional intelligence, situational leadership, and the capacity for reflection, ad-hoc through on-the-job learning. We developed a longitudinal leadership development curriculum for mid-level residents to introduce leadership skills and provide residents with opportunities for self-reflection and practice. Residents participated in six two-hour sessions over nine months. All 23 residents completed the DiSC assessment and 70% participated in five of six sessions. In the comparison of pre and post surveys, there was global agreement on the importance and the impact of the leadership development curriculum on participants’ perceived ability to lead clinical teams and serve in leadership roles in the residency, institution, and community. Qualitative comments included valuing the small group interaction, enjoying the active participation and ability to practice skills, engaging peers in conversation about challenges, and building on effective communication through learning about leadership styles.  We incorporated feedback into modifications for this year’s curriculum and will adapt the sessions to a virtual format due to COVID.  We will increase the medical relevance of the content and train the clinical faculty to lead the sessions to allow for a sustainable curriculum model. We will incorporate residents who participated in the leadership development curriculum last year into the sessions this year, which will help engage participants in active learning and practicing leadership skills.  We feel these adaptations will improve peer engagement and provide a sustainable model for the leadership development curriculum for our residents, which could be adapted to other programs.

Presenter: Jane Trinh, MD, FACP, FAAP, Duke University School of Medicine

P012: Facilitating Entrustable Professional Activity documentation during the Internal Medicine Clerkship: Pilot program reflections

This abstract summarizes how the Internal Medicine Clerkship team at Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine (FIU HWCOM) implemented the use of AAMCs Core Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA) assessments within the clerkship. As one of ten pilot programs selected for this EPA entrustment program, HWCOM was tasked with implementing EPA documentation within the clinical clerkships. After an initial voluntary year (Class of 2019) when students could select which EPA assessments they wished to complete during each of the seven core clinical clerkships, Class of 2020 students were specifically assigned certain EPA assessments that had to be completed during each clerkship. The required EPAs selected by the team for the Internal Medicine Clerkship included EPA 1 (history and physical), EPA 2 (prioritize differential diagnoses), EPA 3 (ordering/interpreting diagnostic tests), EPA 6 (oral presentations), EPA 7 (integrating evidence-based medicine), and EPA 9 (collaborating as an inter-professional team member).  Results are presented, including total number of assessments completed within the IM Clerkship, as well as reflections on important factors required for successful training of teaching faculty and implementation of EPA surveys. Findings demonstrate that even when a large number of teaching faculty are involved, ranging from full-time university faculty to voluntary community-based faculty, successful completion of EPA assessments can be achieved. Future plans include compilation and review of EPA data by pilot entrustment committees, to provide an attestation regarding the level of competency for each medical school graduate.

Presenter: Amalia Landa-Galindez, MD, FACP, Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine

P016: Inter-Visit Care Metric: A Novel Approach to Improving Provider Follow Up of Ambulatory Test Results

Test result follow up is important for patient safety and trust. Our objective is to improve residents’ follow up of lab results in the ambulatory setting through a feedback mechanism which we call the Inter-Visit Care metric (IVCM).

Presenter: Meghan Gwinn, MD, Henry Ford Hospital/Wayne State University

P021: Interactive Near-Peer Teaching: Preliminary Results of Ongoing Curricular Changes

Near-peer teaching improves learner satisfaction, knowledge acquisition, and may be used in the development of residents as educators. To our knowledge, the use of near-peer interactive learning models as a primary means of ambulatory curriculum implementation has not been well elucidated. The major aim of this study is to determine if the use of supervised interactive near-peer teaching, shifting content delivery to the learner, will result in improved engagement, satisfaction, knowledge acquisition, comfort, and increased skill development as an educator.

Residents employ interactive teaching techniques and complete pre and post-board style questions and surveys assessing comfort with diagnosis and treatment. Attendees assess quality, engagement, and effectiveness. Satisfaction, self-evaluation as an educator, and comfort with literature interpretation will be assessed every 4 months. Knowledge retention will be determined by in-training examination scores. Correlation between subjective and objective measures and retention will be investigated.

Preliminary data analyses included 105 pre-session tests/surveys and 95 post responses for 1 topic presented. There was a significant improvement in post-test scores. The proportion of residents from the pre-test group who felt very comfortable with treatment was 9.2%, whereas in the post-test group that proportion was 35.8%, which was statistically significant. Further, 7.4% of the residents felt uncomfortable with the topic initially while none did in the post-test.

The improvement in objective testing and comfort with topic treatment supports the use of supervised interactive near-peer teaching as a novel primary model for ambulatory curriculum delivery.

Presenter: Francisco Jose Reis Ferreira de Lima, MD, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo

P022: Takin’ It to the Tweets: A Resident-Run Twitter Curriculum to Promote Learning and a Sense of Connection on the Medicine Clerkship

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the clinical learning environment and medical school training across the country.  Student schedules and conferences were deeply impacted, and even after a return to a relative steady state after the initial March surge in COVID-19 cases, obstacles to learning remained.  Residents and residency programs were also noted to have increased their use of Twitter for educational and recruitment purposes.  However, few medical students were using Twitter for this purpose, and no formal training on Twitter in medical education existed previously.  In July 2020 we created a Medicine Clerkship Twitter curriculum with the goals of providing asynchronous learning opportunities on the Medicine clerkship, fostering a sense of connection between students, residents and faculty, and demonstrating the utility of social media in undergraduate medical education.  This curriculum was designed, under the guidance and supervision of two faculty members, by two PGY3 residents who have an interest in social media and medical education.  Students were surveyed on their attitudes towards social media in medical education before and after the rotation.  The curriculum was well received by students, but additionally, residents and faculty enjoyed contributing to the commentary on Twitter.

Presenter: Hannah Ravreby, MD, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

P023: The Importance of Deliberate Practice: A Virtual Clinical Reasoning Elective

As students transition from the preclinical to clinical years of medical school, it becomes imperative not just to arrive at a correct answer on a multiple-choice test, but to be able to employ clinical reasoning skills for diagnostic assessments in real-word scenarios. These skills are often not taught explicitly and instead are left to be absorbed through observation of supervising clinicians, resulting in a non-systematic and non-standardized approach to clinical problem solving. There is a need for formal curricula in clinical reasoning to give students the vocabulary and space to practice clinical problem solving, while receiving feedback from expert faculty. In March of 2020 when medical students were removed from clinical rotations due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we recognized an opportunity to use the virtual classroom to deliver a curriculum to more intentionally develop clinical reasoning skills. We created four-week electives for MS3 and MS4 students at Loyola and Emory with three core learning objectives: (1) To teach core concepts and terms in the established framework of clinical diagnostic reasoning, (2) To foster application of these concepts through active engagement with practice cases, and (3) To develop educational materials to share with peers. As evidenced by student reflections on our electives, students craved this type of structured exposure to the vocabulary and theories of clinical reasoning, and found that deliberate practice was key towards becoming effective in developing skills in clinical problem solving.

Presenter: Anne Arnason, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine

P024: What Is An Environment of Inquiry? A Survey of Resident Perceptions and Guide for Program Improvement

To facilitate an environment of inquiry (EOI), we first sought to understand trainee perception of an EOI to guide program wide initiatives to enhance an EOI. The main themes highlighted include an open and safe learning environment on team rounds, residents as educators, and scholarly activity. The results and insights of our trainees have impacted multiple educational domains across all sub-specialty divisions. Program-wide surveys of resident clinical and educational experience and real-time monitoring of these initiatives will help assess the strength and success of these initiatives.

Presenter: Michelle Lundholm, MD, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine

P029: Enhancing Resident Case Conference Participation and Critical Thinking with Free Text Interactive Audience Response System

Medical education in residency is often delivered with case conferences to foster an interactive learning environment. However, we observed that resident participation in large group discussions can be variable, with some residents speaking frequently and others disengaged.  Although we foster a safe learning environment, the fear of performing poorly in front of colleagues could be a contributing factor to disengagement. Multiple-choice audience response systems are often used to address this problem, but this limits critical thinking. Instead, we embedded anonymous web-based free text audience response activities into presentations to improve participation in our case conferences.

Preliminary data suggests that incorporation of free text audience response systems into the conference increased general participation from 20% to 85.2%. Additionally, the quantity of unique differential diagnoses increased from 0.2 to 0.35 responses per resident.

Incorporation of pollEV into case conference presentations has allowed us to better engage with our residents.  The anonymous nature of the software allows residents the ability to share their thoughts in real-time without negative ramifications for erroneous logic for individual learners. The integration of multiple activities throughout the presentation keeps the residents engaged during the entire educational hour and provide immediate feedback to the presentors.

Presenter: Jennifer Duke, MD, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

P031: Cultivating Character Development in the Clinical Learning Environment

We describe our early work to explore student perspective of character moments and character traits in the clinical learning environment using reflective narrative. Clerkship students learned about character moments and character traits, then reflected on their experiences in clerkships to date. They described behaviors that positive role models exhibited related with certain character traits, as well as consequences of missed opportunities to employ character in the clinical learning environment. These rich student narratives provide a framework for our ongoing work to teach and assess professionalism using a character lens; this framework will additionally guide future faculty development and residents as teachers sessions. We will also soon celebrate our student-identified character exemplars who lead by example in the clinical learning environment.

Presenter: Marty Muntz, MD, FACP, Medical College of Wisconsin

P032: Psychological Safety on Medical Education Teams – Reflections from the Clinical Learning Environment

Psychological Safety, defined as the belief that the work environment is safe for interpersonal risk-taking, is vital to high-functioning teams in complex workplaces like our clinical learning environments. We taught clerkship students concepts of PS and how it affects key patient care, learning, and interpersonal team outcomes and then asked them to reflect and write on their experiences with PS during clerkships. Students identified team leader behaviors that enhanced and threatened PS; students also reported specific behaviors that they exhibited when PS was present and avoided when PS was absent. These behaviors will be used to design faculty development and residents as teachers sessions, as well as to celebrate resident and faculty exemplars of PS in the CLE.

Presenter: Marty Muntz, MD, FACP, Medical College of Wisconsin

P034: Resident Retriever: A Machine Learning Approach to Screening Residency Applicants

Screening residency applications is time consuming and generally relies on simplistic “sortable” measures like USMLE scores. A multidisciplinary group of trainees, data scientists, and program directors at one institution developed a machine learning approach for automated pre-screening of residency applicants for interview. The model had good performance in discriminating candidates who were offered an interview through human review from those who were not. The machine learning model was then deployed with an interactive dashboard in parallel to human review in the current application cycle. The approach helps pre-screen candidates with low likelihood of invitation (screen out) as well as identify candidates who would otherwise have been screened out (screen in). This automated approach is generalizable to other programs and is resource sparing, permitting more holistic review.

Presenter: Jesse Rafel, MD, MRes, New York University School of Medicine

P036: Novel Clinical Reasoning Bootcamp to Foster Oral Presentation and Clinical Reasoning Skills in the Internal Medicine Inpatient Clerkship

Description of how the problem was identified and explored:  During IM grading meetings, review of students’ clinical performance assessments (CPAs) suggested an opportunity for students to foster their oral presentations and clinical reasoning skills. 

Descriptions of the innovations:  In May 2017, the first clinical reasoning bootcamp was launched during orientation week for an integrated internal medicine, neurology, and psychiatry clerkship.  In the first session, the small groups were given a de-identified H&P and asked to generate their own differential and assessment and plan.  Next the small groups were given an update spanning hours to days into the clinical case.  The students then re-worked their differential and plan.  In the second session, two different students presented their group’s findings. One student provided an oral presentation for the clinical case, while another discussed educational take away points. Each small group received feedback from their peer groups and the faculty facilitator. After all small groups presented, a second set of de-identified clinical cases were distributed and the process was repeated.  During the third session, each small group again presented their clinical case and take away points.  The bootcamp concluded with a group debriefing where students shared thoughts on best practices for oral presentations and written notes.  

Discussion/reflection/lessons learned:  The bootcamp has been well-received by students and facilitators.  The bootcamp provides realistic practice for what students encounter when they join their clinical teams and are asked to pick up patients who have been admitted overnight or do not respond to initial treatment plans.

Presenter: Katherine Walsh, MD, Ohio State University College of Medicine

P037: Enter and Discuss Orders and Prescriptions - Curricular Integration of an Entrustable Professional Activity for Fourth Year Medical Students

EPA 4, Enter and Discuss Orders and Prescriptions, has been identified as a weakness for many PGY1 residents.  Our institution  also identified this as a weakness amongst our graduates.  We describe a curriculum, incorporated into a required fourth year sub-internship, which is successfully improving graduate confidence and skills in order entry.

Presenter: Kristen Lewis, MD, Ohio State University College of Medicine

P040: Adaptation of a Resident Teaching Rotation to Provide Non-Evaluative Resident-Led Coaching for Clerkship Students

Individualized coaching and direct observation are effective strategies to both remediate struggling learners and facilitate growth of all learners. However, training in coaching theory and techniques is often limited. Moreover, while best practice dictates separation of evaluator and coach roles, this distinction is difficult in practice. Our institution has developed a novel two-week senior resident teaching rotation employing residents as non-evaluative coaches for clerkship students.

Prior to the rotation, residents complete asynchronous training on clinical coaching, direct observation, and use of validated feedback tools. During the rotation, residents are assigned to directly observe and provide feedback on student pre-rounds and oral case presentations. To facilitate SMART goal-setting, targeted feedback, and concrete action plan development, an electronic QR-based feedback tool was developed, incorporating instruments for assessment of history and physical, oral presentation, and clinical reasoning skills.

Survey data showed that 5/6 of residents felt their skills as a medical educator improved after completing the rotation (N = 6, response rate 86%). Moreover, 83% of clerkship students felt that it was beneficial to have the teaching resident observe presentations on rounds (N=35).

Novel adaptation of a senior resident teaching rotation has provided opportunity for education on clinical coaching and direct observation, while expanding capacity to provide in-person formative feedback for student learners outside of the evaluation system. In the future, this peer coach model could be scaled to non-clerkship or struggling learners with supervision by coaching faculty. 

Presenter: Margot Cohen, MD, Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania

P043: An Interactive Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Workshop – Integrating EPA 13 into a Fourth-Year Medical Student Transition to Residency Bootcamp

Identifying systems failures and contributing to a culture of safety is AAMC’s thirteenth Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA). While most curricula teach principles of Patient Safety (PS) and Quality Improvement (QI), opportunities to participate in QI/PS discussions are not available to all students. We designed this workshop to allow students apply previously learned concepts to real adverse patient event (APE) cases.

This 3-hour capstone included didactic review of QI, PS, and TeamSTEPPS tools, and experiential components. Interactive small group discussions were student led.  They collaboratively composed an incident report for the APE, conducted a Root Cause Analysis (RCA) by “interviewing” healthcare team members, and proposed error prevention ideas based on identified systems problems.

During AY2019, pre-post session mean knowledge scores and comfort with RCA and TeamSTEPPS concepts increased. For AY2020, increase in ability to identify Serious Safety Events (57.5% to 76.3%) and Escalation Chain of Command (58.2% to 77%) was observed.  Evaluation by internal medicine specialty bootcamp students found 79.6% rated the workshop moderately-extremely effective.

This capstone provides a novel way to help students synthesize health systems science concepts through implementing problem-solving processes. Students gain an appreciation for the importance EPA13 and patient care perspective.

Ability to identify appropriate chain of command, escalate concerns, and correctly recognize serious APEs has implications in post-graduate training and practice.  Using student facilitators and resident preceptors increases engagement and decreases faculty supervision burden.  The workshop was successfully made virtual.  Instructional format and facilitator flexibility will be invaluable as uncertainty due to the COVID-19 pandemic persists. 

Presenter: Catherine Chen, MD, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

P046: Implementation of Telephone Visits in a Residency Clinic: A Strategy to Build Telehealth Skills, Improve Patient Ownership, and Enhance Continuity

Scheduled telephone visits are a convenient, effective method to deliver care; however, have not been widely incorporated into resident education. We piloted a telephone visit initiative in our residency clinic from October 2016 – December 2018 with the goal of developing telehealth skills in our trainees. We hoped that this novel visit type would also increase patient ownership and provider-patient continuity. During the pilot, nine of our 36 categorical internal medicine residents had a one hour block per week templated into their schedule for telephone visits. Unfilled openings were converted into acute office visits. All residents received direct or indirect attending supervision, depending on their PGY level, and all documentation was routed to the preceptor for co-signature. Measures included resident surveys and continuity data obtained through chart review. Seven residents were surveyed about their experience, with a response rate of 86% (6/7 residents surveyed). All respondents reported these visits increased their patient ownership, allowed them to build rapport with patients, and that the level of supervision was appropriate. With regard to continuity, out of the 273 telephone visits scheduled, 179 (65.6%) were with the patient’s PCP and 71 (26.0%) were within the PCP’s firm. We encountered several scheduling and supervision challenges during our pilot, which required refinement of our scheduling practices. We found that dedicated telephone visit time not only allowed residents to develop telehealth skills under appropriate supervision, but also improved patient ownership and preserved provider-patient continuity, thus we have expanded scheduled telephone visits for the current academic year.

Presenter: Jenna Laughlin, DO, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University/Christiana Care Health Services

P047: Performance and Confidence of Medical Residents in Leading a Rapid Response Team: A Quality Improvement Project

Performance and Confidence of Medical Residents in Leading a Rapid Response Team.  Formal education programs with mock rapid responses to improve housestaff comfort in both triggering and running an RRT.

Presenter: Andrew Moraco, MD, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center

P048: Simulating The Simulation: Virtual Orientation for Medical Interns in The Era of COVID-19

The Temple University Internal Medicine Residency Program conducted a fully virtual PGY-1 orientation in 2020 to comply with social distancing guidelines imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Procedure and emergency response training was conducted in a novel "virtual hands-on" format via streaming video. The format was well received by residents and survey data suggest an opportunity to conduct portions of future orientation events in a virtual format.

Presenter: Andrew Wickerham, MD, MPH, Temple University Hospital Samaritan

P049: Introducing the Core Competency of Effective Community Engagement for Internal Medicine Interns

Internal Medicine residency focuses on the core competencies of patient care and systems-based practice, both of which require significant interactions with surrounding communities.  While instruction on the social determinants of health is an essential component of residency education, academic programs have not traditionally established formal didactics to introduce culturally competent approaches to effective community engagement that complement direct patient care.  We have designed an introductory discussion-based curriculum to educate first year residents regarding a proposed competency in “effective community engagement.”  The curriculum introduces learners to the historical context of the academic institution and its surrounding communities and incorporates the National Institutes of Health's Principles of Community Engagement to provide a structure for discussion topics.  While it is not yet known how these didactics would impact individual relationships, preliminary results suggest learners appreciate the content and find the discussions engaging.  We hope that through this curriculum, residents will recognize the complex dynamic of community engagement programs and be better equipped to become full patient advocates.

Presenter: Regina Jacob, MD, Temple University Hospital Samaritan

P051: Implementation of a Unique Procedure Policy for a New Community-Based Internal Medicine Residency Program

In the development of a new community-based internal medicine program, an interventional radiology (IR) rotation was created to ensure interns completed the ACGME required number of procedures. However, it became evident that residents were not continuing to practice their skills after the completion of the rotation.  Roughly 40 paracenteses, 30 thoracenteses, and 50 central lines are performed by the IR suite every month. Our goal was to create a protocol to move these procedures to the bedside to allow residents to practice their procedural skills throughout the entirety of their training.  After a two-month time period, 18 paracenteses, 14 thoracenteses, and 40 central lines were performed by the teaching team on the floor.  The protocol was successful in allowing residents to continue to practice their procedural skills after the completion of their IR rotation and moved a total of 72 procedure from the IR suite to the nursing floor.

Presenter: Grace McNutt, Texas Institute of Graduate Medical Education and Research (Tigmer)

P055: Utilization of Instagram as a Primary Tool for Residency Recruitment

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique challenges to resident recruitment.  Given social distancing guidelines, and restrictions on travel and in-person gatherings, we sought to replace many functions of our in-person recruiting tools with the social media platform Instagram. Utilization of Instagram has allowed us to highlight the culture of our residency program and engage potential applicants who are unable to visit in-person. Based on our experience, we believe developing a social media presence is a low-cost, high-yield method to facilitate recruitment and promote resident camaraderie.

Presenter: Andrew Hwang, MD, University of California, Riverside School of Medicine

P058: Enhancing Ambulatory Education and Career Exploration in the Fourth Year of Medical School

Medical students traditionally have had less exposure to the ambulatory practice environment than to the inpatient setting. In the past, UCSF students completed a third year primary care preceptorship, however students had less systematic experience with ambulatory skills relevant to other specialties/subspecialties. The less structured fourth year of medical school provides an ideal opportunity for ambulatory curricular innovation. As part of institutional curriculum redesign we developed SPAN (Specialty Practice Ambulatory sub-iNternship), a required longitudinal ambulatory preceptorship for fourth year students. The goals of SPAN are to facilitate fourth year medical students’ a) development of advanced ambulatory skills b) exploration of a specialty/subspecialty of interest and c) mentoring and clinical coaching relationships with a faculty member in their chosen field.

   SPAN students are paired 1:1 with a faculty member in a specialty/subspecialty of the student’s choosing. Students complete 16 half-day outpatient clinic sessions during the fourth year. Students and preceptors have periodic feedback sessions to review the student’s goals and growth; preceptors complete 8 direct clinical observations of the student and students complete 6 self-reflections over the year.

   In the 2019-2020 inaugural year 132 students participated in SPAN; over 95% were matched with a preceptor in their first or second choice specialty.  Mid-point feedback will be obtained in December 2019.

   SPAN is a flexible, highly individualized longitudinal experience that provides graduating students a strong foundation of ambulatory skills relevant to their residency training. SPAN is easily transferable to other institutions as it draws on existing outpatient clinical and educational structures.

Presenter: Katherine Lupton, MD, FACP, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine

P060: Innovating a Novel Virtual Rounds Curriculum for Medical Students’ Internal Medicine Clerkship During the COVID-19 Pandemic

During the spring of the COVID-19 pandemic, third-year medical students were unable to participate in on-site clinical activities. We identified Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship components that would be suboptimal if students learned solely from online didactics and case-studies (such as pre-rounding, oral presentations, diagnostic reasoning, and management discussions). Using this, we created a Virtual Rounds curriculum (VR) to provide IM clerkship students with clinical exposure.

Presenter: Smrithi Sukumar, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine

P061: Development of a Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Longitudinal Curriculum and Multidisciplinary  and Interprofessional Project Forum for Residents

Development of longitudinal 3 year curriculum for QI and Patient Safety for internal medicine residents with culmination in a multidisciplinary and interprofessional Quality and Patient Safety Forum to showcase resident projects in an academic setting across hospitals.

Presenter: Ashwini Komarla, MD, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

P062: Rethinking the Third Year Inpatient Medicine Clerkship

The transition from the classroom to the hospital is traditionally a significant adjustment in the learning environment for medical students. One’s learning experience often depends on the attending and resident physicians a student is assigned to, generating a variable learning environment. We sought to reimagine, improve, and standardize our medical student inpatient medicine clerkship and provide a continuous, reliable experience of teaching excellence for all of our third-year medical students.

Presenter: Omar Qazi, MD, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

P063: The SIGN OUT PROJECT: Standardized Inpatient GME Night Float Organized Quality Transfer of Patients

Transitions of care are a challenge in any clinical setting. Our internal medicine program implements a night team that works 12 hour shifts and signs out the patients admitted overnight to several day teams. We noticed several challenges with the morning signout process, including lack of knowledge of day teams’ census, disorganized process and resident dissatisfaction with the process. We devised a quality improvement project (QIP) to implement a formal multifaceted standardized morning sign-out process. The project was resident-led, allowing us to institute changes without significant difficulty. We analyzed our morning signout process using a roadmap analysis and a fishbone diagram. We surveyed residents regarding their satisfaction with the duration of signout, the distribution of patients, the quality of patient information, and the current overall signout process. We implemented several “Plan, Do, Study, Act” (PDSA) cycles, including establishing one central location for resident hand-off, proper technique for assigning patient to incoming day teams, a formatted whiteboard in the GME resident room with new night admission assignments for each of the teams, along with a new standardized EMR sign-out template. Outcome metrics were collected through periodic electronic surveys to measure resident satisfaction with different aspects of the sign-out process. Our preliminary results showed a 75% increase in resident satisfaction of the overall sign-out process and structure.  As shift work in the U.S increases and residency programs continue to abide by specific work hours, the number of sign-outs during a patient’s hospitalization have increased. Undoubtedly, these mechanisms must be concise, complete, and accurate in passing along information to avoid potential patient harm and inefficient work for clinicians. This QIP showed that standardized and centralized processes can be placed to increase resident satisfaction in transferring patient information to the incoming team.

Presenter: Richard Henriquez, MD, University of Central Florida College of Medicine

P066: Creating Supportive Practice Space for Clerkship Students Using Coaching Teamlets

We have developed a team based coaching program during the 3rd year Internal Medicine Clerkship to promote skills develop and support students. Our poster will describe the development of our coaching program, successes and challenges we've faced, and plans for future development.

Presenter: Ryan Nall, MD, University of Florida College of Medicine

P067: A Novel EPA Aligned Discharge Curriculum

Discharging a patient from the hospital is an integral part of an intern’s responsibility. Studies show that over 95% of students desire additional discharge training. As part of the medicine sub internship, 58 students at the University of Illinois completed a survey to identify their knowledge gaps in discharge planning.   Gaps identified included documentation, roles and responsibilities of healthcare providers, medication reconciliation and identifying factors to prevent readmission. To help students develop entrustable professional behaviors regarding safe discharge practices, we designed a curriculum to improve students’ skills, attitudes, and knowledge. The curriculum consisted of 5 parts:  an independent module, students providing discharge instructions to patients with direct preceptor feedback, following up by phone with patients after discharge, completing a self-assessment and a final small group session addressing ways to prevent errors and improve the discharge process.

Data was collected from 92 pre and 58 post-curriculum surveys. Differences in proportions were determined using chi-squared test. The results were as follows: knowledge increased in performing medication reconciliation (40% to 75%, p < .001) and writing discharge summaries (57% to 83%, p = .002), and attitudes improved regarding importance of transportation needs (64% to 96%, p < .001) and financial concerns (53% to 90%, p < .001) and direct student involvement in providing patient discharge education increased from 38% to 85%, p < .001. As this curriculum has been deployed for over two years with multiple preceptors, it has been standardized and can be easily implemented in different fourth year rotations.

Presenter: Asra Khan, MD, University of Illinois College of Medicine

P068: Use of a Discharge Observation Tool in Medicine Sub-Internship

Discharging a patient is an important activity that interns are expected to perform during residency. Despite this, over 95% of medical students desire additional training. We used a discharge observation tool originally used in the medicine clerkship to assess fourth year student’s performance when discharging patients during their medicine sub-internship. Students were required to have a preceptor provide real-time feedback while discharging a patient. The tool was used to provide feedback to 82 students in the following areas: patient communication, medication counseling, and team communication. The results were as follows:  92% provided appropriate medical terminology, engaged in the teach-back method, were responsive to non-verbal cues when discharging patients, 90% addressed patient’s concerns about the discharge plan, including questions about how factors such as cost, transportation and insurance may affect follow up, 82% provided counseling about new medications started during the hospitalization and described side effects of medications administered, 87% involved other members of the healthcare team, communicated with other physicians, and explained the follow up plan after discharge. The discharge observation tool is a workplace-based assessment, similar to the Mini-CEX for discharge. It is easy for preceptors to use, simple to implement, and can be used in a variety of settings with minimal preparation.

Presenter: Asra Khan, MD, University of Illinois College of Medicine

P069: QUIKCOACH:  An Innovative Platform for Providing Workplace-based Formative Feedback

Three-year data from the intern orientation Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA)-based Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) demonstrated a gap between what is expected from the learners in terms of EPA proficiency and their baseline performance. We developed mini-structured clinical observation (MSCO) forms based on the EPA OSCE and designed a mobile platform to efficiently deliver just-in-time MSCO feedback forms in the patient care setting. Electronic MSCO forms based on EPAs were developed.  Elements from the EPA station checklists which provided discrete performance data specific to the context of the patient problem were chosen.  A mobile iOS platform, QUIKCOACH, was developed to deliver feedback.  Core tenets used in development of this app included:  learner-initiated request for feedback; timely delivery of forms to allow for direct observation, voice-enabled narrative comment capability, immediate feedback delivery to learners, and the ability for learners to assess the usefulness of supervisor feedback.  A pilot is currently being conducted in the iOS TestFlight app.  Assessment of feasibility, reliability and educational impact is being collected. Formative feedback based on direct workplace-based observation of learners is essential to the development of clinical skill competence.  MSCO forms were designed to provide quick, formative feedback to learners based on direct observation.  Actionable behavior-specific comments and global assessment are part of each form. The mobile iOS application makes the process of observation and formative feedback easy and time-efficient in the workplace setting.  This initiative supplements existing evaluation processes by providing additional data to residents regarding their progress in reaching clinical skill competencies.

Presenter: Jane Rowat, University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine

P071: Peer-Based Formative Assessment and Feedback on Residents' Teaching Skills Using an Objective Structured Teaching Exercise

This poster will explain how we designed and implemented a time and resource efficient Objective Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE) into our resident teaching skills curriculum to allow residents to demonstrate teaching skills and receive peer feedback. Objectives included: 1) demonstrate one-minute preceptor (OMP) microskills, 2) create an effective learning climate, and 3) provide peer feedback based on direct observation.

We will describe components of the OSTE and how we trained residents in their roles and responsibilities. We will show pictures of the instructions and the pocket card with the steps of the OMP that residents received. We will use figures to demonstrate how residents themselves served as standardized learners, resident teachers, and facilitators who debriefed the OSTE. We will show pictures of our residents participating in the OSTE in their specific roles. We will describe the large group debriefing, commitment to a teaching action plan, and the session and peer evaluations.

We will describe our findings regarding which of the microskills residents most commonly identified as needing improvement.  We will describe the quality of the oral and written peer feedback with specific examples. We will report resident pre- and post-assessment of their own teaching skills in the OMP, feedback, and learning climate as well as resident evaluation of the usefulness and fidelity of the OSTE itself.

This OSTE provided an efficient, effective, and valued platform for residents to practice teaching skills and receive peer feedback based on direct observation. We believe it can be easily adapted by other programs.

Presenter: Krista Johnson, MD, University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine

P079: Student Tele-support to Reduce Isolation and VulnErability (STRIVE)

Social isolation (lack of or infrequent social connections) and loneliness (perceived isolation) are major public health concerns that are associated with poorer physical and mental health outcomes. Social distancing due to COVID-19, has exacerbated social isolation and loneliness-- both of which disproportionately affects patients who are already vulnerable – those who are older, with more chronic conditions, and those with limited social supports.

Our goal was to reduce social isolation and loneliness by providing longitudinal companionship from medical students through virtual visitation, while creating innovative educational opportunities for medical students who were entering into a virtual learning environment.

Medical students enrolled in the STRIVE program contacted patients on a weekly basis via phone or video. In addition to providing social support and companionship, students screened patients for and provided resources to address unmet social needs, provided COVID-19 education, and reported to their physician preceptors weekly to discuss patient progress and necessary interventions. These students participated in weekly didactics and submitted reflective essays.

Fifty-three out of 65 patients were successfully reached and established care with a medical student. Of the patients reached, 43 (81%) were identified to have at least one unmet social need.

In conclusion, patients at high risk for social isolation and students can benefit from longitudinal contact that provides various forms of social support and serves as a continuous link to the patients' primary care clinic. This curricular innovation has developed into a permanent 4th year elective within the clinical component for our health systems sciences course.

Presenter: Madison Malfitano, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

P081: Initiation of a Chief Medical Student Role to Enhance Student Education and Representation

Poster title: “Initiation of a Chief Medical Student Role to Enhance Student Education and Representation.” Contributing authors will be listed below the title. Poster sections starting with upper left quadrant and moving counter clockwise: (1) Identifying the Problem, (2) The Medical Student Chief Role, (3) Aims, (4) Innovations, (5) Outcomes. The center of the poster will show a photo and/or graphic depicting our medical student morning report series, illustrating the structure of collaboration among fourth, third, and pre-clinical medical students.

Presenter: Robert Short, III, University of North Carolina School of Medicine

P083: Teaching Time Management Skills to Fourth Year Medical Students Using the PDSA Cycle

This intervention bridges the development of skills in time management and quality improvement (QI) over the course of a 4-week sub-internship by introducing QI principles to fourth year medical students and having them apply the Model for Improvement to their own time management skills. They attend an initial workshop and then submit worksheets that show their work over the course of their projects, receiving feedback with each week. At the end, they demonstrate knowledge retention by applying the core skills to a standardized case and their own case based on something they witnessed during their sub-internship. This curriculum has improved student’s confidence in their time management skills and ability to participate in and lead QI projects. It also improved students’ understanding of the importance of time management and learning QI for their future careers. Most students (81.8%) indicated that they planned to use skills learned during this project during their intern year.

Presenter: Jennifer Readlynn, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

P088: Correcting the Grade Inflation Phenomenon in the Internal Medicine Clerkship


Grade inflation in clinical clerkships is a national epidemic. In prior studies, the majority of internal medicine clerkship directors believe grade inflation exists at their institution. UT Southwestern’s Internal Medicine Clerkship has observed over 50% of students receiving Honors grades, sometimes without sufficient commentary in faculty evaluations to substantiate these grades. The clerkship sought to address this issue by adopting a multimodal approach to facilitate greater concordance between narrative observations and awarded grades as well as promote a more normative distribution of grades.


New evaluation forms prioritizing narrative feedback over numeric scoring were introduced. Subsequently, faculty development workshops were hosted at each clinical training site. Grading calibration mechanisms were designed to reconcile discrepancies between recorded observations and clinical grade assigned by faculty evaluators. Finally, a committee was convened to review grade appeals and ensure standardization. The primary outcome assessed was the distribution of grades.


The percentage of students awarded a grade of “Honors” decreased from 63% to 45% in the post-intervention cohort. An independent samples T-Test confirmed the effectiveness of the intervention to reverse the grade inflation phenomenon.


Implementation of new processes and initiatives to emphasize narrative feedback was successful in achieving a more normative grade distribution as demonstrated by a shift from Honors to other grade categories. This project serves as a framework for how narrative feedback and assessment reform strategies can be applied to achieve more normative grading distribution in an effort to better distinguish student performance and reverse the cycle of grade inflation.

Presenter: Justin Holmes, MD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School

P090: Employing Patient Encounter Simulations to Boost Learners’ Confidence and Skills For Empathetically Communicating Difficult News

Communicating test results and treatment plans are an integral component of patient care, yet medical trainees receive limited instruction and feedback for this competency. To increase medical students' competency and confidence for difficult but empathetic conversations with patients and their families we created a communication simulation utilizing SPIKES and NURSES frameworks that was then delivered by VitalTalk-certified or trained faculty during the core Internal Medicine clerkship.

Presenter: Reeni Abraham, MD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School

P095: Reinventing the Bootcamp Experience

Most Internal Medicine Program Directors (IM PDs) agree that Core Entrustable Professional Activity (Core EPA) #10, Recognize a patient requiring urgent or emergent care and initiate evaluation and management, is one of the top 5 Core EPAs that incoming residents should be ready to perform on day 1 of intern year. However, most medical students do not feel adequately prepared to perform this Core EPA by graduation. Recognizing the need to reinforce this essential clinical skill, we developed two case-based simulation experiences as a component of our fourth-year capstone experience.

Incorporating Core EPAs into our framework, we designed two case-based scenarios utilizing high-fidelity mannequins to simulate decompensating patients requiring urgent clinical evaluation and management.  We scheduled students in pairs to mimic an intern-student team and each exchanged roles for the subsequent scenario. A total of 20 minutes was allotted for each simulation which included time for prebriefing and debriefing. Faculty facilitators evaluated student performance on multiple Core EPAs (including Core EPA 10) and provided direct feedback during the simulation debriefing.

A total of 38 students completed the simulation and 28 completed the survey for a response rate of 74%. The high-fidelity simulation experience was highly effective in improving students’ perceived preparation for intern year. Students also felt that the direct, structured feedback focusing on multiple Core EPAs was useful and practical. 

This high-yield simulation experience enables reinforcement of key clinical skills, including gaps in certain Core EPAs, to better equip graduating medical students for intern year.

Presenter: Adam Garber, MD, FACP, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

P097: Implementation of Digital Direct Observation Moments in Resident Continuity Clinic

Despite being long recognized as critical tools for resident improvement, direct observations by faculty are increasingly difficult to prioritize in the outpatient setting. The implementation of direct observation curricula has also been challenged by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, where many outpatient clinics were canceled, postponed, or transitioned to telehealth. The balance of COVID-19 precautions with faculty direct observation must be addressed in a timely manner to ensure that learners are reaching clinical competency milestones.

We surveyed Internal Medicine trainees and General Internal Medicine (GIM) faculty regarding perceived importance of ambulatory direct observations for resident education, preferred type of observation tool, and ideal clinical skills most likely to benefit from direct observations. As expected, faculty thought direct observations were important for resident self-improvement, which was discrepant from resident responses. Overall, faculty recommended more observations of communication-based domains of the clinic visit, while trainees preferred observations on physical exam maneuvers and outpatient procedures. Faculty also reported dissatisfaction and unfamiliarity with tools like mini-CEX and were interested in an electronic version of the tool.

We have since implemented an electronic direct observations outpatient tool that can be easily accessed via a QR code. In the 3 months of implementation, 43% of our intern trainees have been directly observed by faculty in the continuity clinic setting. We plan to administer a 6-month post-survey to faculty and residents to better understand implementation and effectiveness of this new tool, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Presenter: Jessica Valente, MD, Wake Forest School of Medicine of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center

P099: Development and Implementation of an IM Residency Clinical Reasoning and Documentation Curriculum

Using an internally-developed, reliable documentation assessment tool, we have previously reported the relative lack of documented clinical reasoning among IM residents. EMR documentation can be a venue to demonstrate and augment clinical reasoning.  We developed a longitudinal curriculum for second year IM residents using didactics, group discussion, and peer feedback to improve documentation quality.   Our curriculum is nearing completion, was well-received, and changed attitudes and reported documentation practices.  Using our EMR documentation assessment tool, we studied and report the effect of the curriculum on documentation quality to guide future curricular improvements.

Presenter: Karl Richardson, MD, Wake Forest School of Medicine of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center

P101: Developing Residents’ Critical Consciousness:  A Half Day Social Determinants of Health Curriculum

Social determinants of health (SDH) contribute to health disparities.  Current graduate medical education (GME) on SDH and health disparities is inconsistent, and residency programs are challenged to improve their curricula on this topic. 

The goal of this project was to create a learning experience for Brown’s Internal Medicine residents to improve their knowledge and awareness of SDH specifically using a combination of didactic tools, experiential learning, and discussion/reflection.

We designed a half-day curriculum in partnership with Crossroads (the largest social services delivery agency and homeless shelter in Rhode Island) and the Rhode Island Department of Health (RIDOH).  The curriculum included an introductory didactic presentation, a site visit to Crossroads, a site visit with presentation by the RIDOH, and an end of the day debriefing and reflection session, combined with debriefings after each site visit on a bus that served as our “travelling classroom.”  Evaluation methods included a pre and post survey and a post-curriculum evaluation which were analyzed quantitatively.  We also collected a reflective paragraph from each participant which we analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis. 

We found no statistically significant changes between our pre and post survey on knowledge, behavior or importance.  We identified 3 themes in our qualitative analysis of residents’ post-curriculum reflections: 1) Positive feedback, 2) Suggestions for improvement, 3) Application of activity to practice.  Most residents found the curriculum valuable and favored continuing it in future years.  Residents found the visit to Crossroads especially valuable and suggested other community partners to consider for future site visits. 

Presenter: Jessica Murphy, MD, MS, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University

P104: Teaching Junior Medical Students to Perform Medication Reconciliation

Medication reconciliation (medrec), the process of creating the most accurate list medication list and comparing across transitions of care, is often inaccurate with at least one error identified 10—67% of the time.  Most education on medrec has focused on post-graduates.  We developed an intervention to train medical students on medrec.  In this abstract we describe results after 6 months and lessons learned.

Presenter: Diane Levine, MD, FACP, Wayne State University School of Medicine

P106: A Novel Coaching Team Structure to Foster Deliberate Practice

This poster describes a novel rotational structure designed to foster meaningful formative feedback where resident takes the attending role and the attending becomes resident's coach and introduces the concepts of Deliberate Practice and Growth Mindset. Our poster also includes the preliminary qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews which were conducted at the end of the rotation.

Presenter: Ozan Unlu, MD, Weill Cornell Medicine

P107: Clinical Reasoning Happy Hour: Cheers to Virtual Syllogism

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed the medical education landscape in ways no one could have imagined.  The anticipation and participation in clerkships is a milestone in medical school characterized by excitement as well as relief as one transitions from the classroom to the clinical setting and will finally be carrying out the role of student doctor.  With the pandemic driven alterations in clinical experiences, an important piece of student satisfaction and competence are the connections and community components of being part of "the team."  We created a virtual synchronous gathering for M3 and M4 students to share cases and teaching topics with each other, under the guidance of faculty.  It was not a "course," it was not graded.  Sharing was encouraged and allowed.  Discussion of cases, from the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis creation, work-up and management were done.  These kinds of sessions permit student personal and professional growth in a safe, non-threatening environment as well as opportunities for peer teaching and collegiality.

Presenter: Melissa Olken, MD, PhD, FHM, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker, MD, School of Medicine

P109: Reimagining M and M

Over the prior 24 months, morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference engagement at the University of Virginia dwindled to an all-time low of less than quarterly presentation of cases due to a mixture of resident discomfort presenting cases surrounding error as well as a lack of recognition of potential learning cases. Additionally, there was interest in promoting formal instruction and discussion of clinical reasoning and diagnostic error. Thus, M&M conference was reimagined in an innovative form, as a structured case conference embedding resident self-reflection with facilitated discussion of diagnostic error and bias mitigation that engages all residents in both small and large group discussion. Addressing the culture of the conference and intentionally shifting the content and language of case discussion has led to a dramatic re-engagement in this conference by our residents and in growth of knowledge and understanding of the role of our cognitive biases in leading to diagnostic error.

Presenter: Brian Ulthaut, MD, University of Virginia School of Medicine

P110: Finding Reasoning in an Academic Half Day

Presenter: Bizath Taqui, MD, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University

Diversity, Equity & Inclusion

P007: Participant Reactions to a Regional Conference on Best Practices in Gender Equity in Internal Medicine Training Programs

In January 2020, group of Internal Medicine program leaders in the Philadelphia area with sponsor ship from the American College of Physicians developed a half-day gender equity conference for Internal Medicine residency programs in the Philadelphia, Southern New Jersey, and Delaware area to educate, identify regional challenges, and regionally agree on best practices which we may all implement on the issue.  A post conference survey was distributed to the participants to address participant satisfaction and provide feedback to develop future conferences in other regions.  In this abstract, we present the data from the post conference survey and likelihood conference participants would implement policy change in their program as a result of their participation in the conference.

Presenter: Elizabeth Lee, MD, , Cooper Medical School of Rowan University

Faculty Development

P002: Learning with Friends: A Model for Collaborative Faculty Development

Learning with Friends is a faculty development program between the departments of pediatrics and internal medicine at the UNLV School of Medicine started by the program directors. The program was developed to meet the ACGME requirements and to develop a community of educators that crossed disciplines. Multiple sessions were given based on a needs assessment and were well received. The poster reviews the identification of the need, the intervention, outcomes and future directions. To date, the program has been very successful and continues.

Presenter: Miriam Bar-on, MD, Albert Einstein Healthcare Network

P028: Faculty Scorecard for Feedback and Selection Process

We developed a faculty scorecard that incorporated peer evaluations, resident evaluations, and measures of participation in key program goals and requirements to provide feedback and guide selection of teaching faculty.

Presenter: Jocelyn Krolak, None, Mayo Clinic Alix School of Medicine

P042: Scholarship Connect (SConnect): A Scholarship Curriculum & Mentorship Program

Scholarship skills are sought after for housestaff and junior faculty.  In order to meet program needs, we created a multi-faceted online tool named Scholarship Connect (SConnect).  The program consisted of a didactic curriculum, a mentorship program, senior faculty oversight and mentorship and resources to acquire skills in research (eg. statistical training).  Our novel approach provided a structured framework for both faculty and residents, to both improve academic output and allow for a "train-the-trainer" faculty mentorship program.

Presenter: Sanjay Patel, MD, FACP, FHM, Riverside Methodist Hospitals (Ohio Health)

P054: Creating High Quality Online Faculty Development: Lessons Learned

The poster will have visual pictures of the steps to create online faculty development, problems that one should avoid when possible, the budget/cost of the innovation, and links to the online faculty development that are freely available to all.

Presenter: Lisa Willett, MD, MACM, FACP, University of Alabama School of Medicine

P082: #Accelerate with #SoMe: An Approach to Engaging Faculty with Social Media

The last decade has seen an explosion of social media use in medical education (SoMe). SoMe can be a powerful tool to develop a virtual community of practice, inclusive of the learners we support and educate. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the need for faculty, medical schools, and residency programs to embrace technology and virtual connection. We see this as an opportunity for clinician educators to connect with their learners and peers. We propose an approach to onboard faculty in Internal Medicine departments and engage cross-specialty pollination of ideas within and outside the institution using Kotter’s Accelerate framework. This framework is especially attractive to this particular problem given that it capitalizes on two operating systems by allowing for a diversity of voices, a "want-to" and "get-to" mindset for engaging in areas of interest, encouraging connection, and engaging leadership to accept multiple forms of professional identity and development.

Presenter: Jennifer Readlynn, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

P084: A Faculty Development Program to Efficiently Train and Increase Use of Point-of-Care Ultrasound Among Hospitalists

POCUS faculty development programs generally use a multi-day block course approach which can be disruptive to clinical schedules. Our focused, “drip” method is a dramatic shift.  We aim to increase training efficiency and skills retention by: (1) focusing on six core POCUS views with the greatest relevance; and (2) building on prior conceptual and theoretical work in medical education including scaffolding learning in small “chunks”, providing opportunity for deliberate practice with direct observation and feedback, and utilizing quizzes for test-enhanced learning.  We instituted twenty four recurrent hands-on noon hour training sessions for teaching hospitalists over a two year period. Pre-session video work replaced didactics using a “flipped classroom” model. Residents that had completed our POCUS elective rotation helped serve as hands-on POCUS instructors for teaching faculty across eight standardized patient stations during each session.  Our work has resulted in the development of novel assessment tools, including: (1) a direct observation tool to assess imaging acquisition skills; and (2) on-line quizzes utilizing clinical vignettes and hand-held POCUS videos to assess image interpretation and clinical decision-making skills.  Assessment results illustrate excellent faculty skill acquisition through the program. Additionally, we have detailed a steady increase in the integration of point-of-care ultrasound into our clinical teaching services through sequential faculty and resident surveys, rotation evaluations, ultrasound machine logs, and intermittent “diary” sampling of resident teams.  Given its successes we plan to continue the program for new faculty next year.

Presenter: William Novak, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

P087: A Just In Time Program To Catalyze The Performance Of New Hospital Medicine Ward Attendings

Academic hospitalists aspire to be highly effective teachers and must demonstrate excellence in teaching to be promoted.  Internal Medicine (IM) residency programs increasingly rely on such hospitalists to supervise residents when they are on inpatient service. Accordingly, outstanding resident teaching and evaluations are imperative to the advancement of academic hospitalists and the success of both Hopsital Medicine services and IM residency programs. We sought to coach and mentor academic hospitalists before their first ward teaching rotation with a just-in-time training bundle to optimize the resident learning experience.

Presenter: Jaini Sutaria, MD, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School

P105: A Process to Monitor and Improve Scholarly Activity During Residency

Knowing the principles of research and participation of scholarly activity is a requirement of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).

Efforts to improve scholarly activity include assigning a research director, developing research curriculum, and allocating a protected time for research and scholarly activity showed increase in the number of scholarly activities.

A scoring system was created to evaluate and monitor the scholarly activities for each resident. Each resident will be required to select and complete tasks from the following list enough to total 21 points during the 3 years of the residency (60 days before expected residency program completion for residents “off-cycle”). Each academic year the resident will require 7 points minimum to achieve the scholarly activity requirement. Mentorship program with direct supervision from the faculty members will assess the individual scores and they will share the results with each resident during their quarterly meeting and a plan will be made to help the residents to achieve the minimal required score for the academic year.

We compared the results of the last 3 academic years. 2 parameters were assessed: Total score achieved by all residents; percentage of residents achieved the minimum requirement.

Total points scored in the academic years 2017-2018, 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 were 255, 374 and 482, respectively. The percentage of residents achieved the minimum requirement were 41.67% in 2017-2018, 48.57% in 2018-2019 and 63.89% in 2019-2020 and we still have 3 more months left in this academic year.

Presenter: Zain Kulairi, MD, Wayne State University/Crittenton Hospital


P091: Increasing Medicine Resident Primary Care Career Choice: A decade of experience with interprofessional training programs

The number of current and projected future US primary care physicians are inadequate to meet demands of a growing and aging population with complex health conditions. Shortages are magnified by declining primary care interest of internal medicine (IM). Five Centers of Excellence in Primary Care Education (CoEPCE) “legacy” sites and two additional Centers were created and funded by VA Office of Academic Affiliations from 2011-19, with a mission to transform primary care education from single profession silos to interprofessional learning through innovative curriculum and collaborative team-based care.  One outcome measure was primary care career choice. The Centers varied in curricular design, however IM residents and trainees of multiple health professions each spent >30% of total training in CoEPCE. This novel multi-site interprofessional residency model led to increased primary care career choice for IM residents in Centers with focused primary care recruitment (range 47-80% for individual Centers over duration of the program). All-site Center evaluation showed successful outcomes in clinical care, quality improvement, education domains, faculty and trainee satisfaction.

Since inception, the CoEPCE legacy sites have graduated over 250 internal medicine physicians and over 100 nurse practitioner residents. The successful CoEPCE resident outcomes have implications for redesign of IM residency programs, with increased primary care career choice when primary care training time is increased to 30% with innovative interprofessional curricula and collaboration. With dramatic changes in training as demonstrated by CoEPCE, IM physician graduates may increasingly choose primary care practice and impact future workforce and patient care.


Presenter: Joyce Wipf, MD, MACP, University of Washington School of Medicine

Technology & Innovation

P014: Preserving Scholarly Presentations During COVID-19: Leveraging the Interprofessional Team to Quickly Create a Virtual E-Poster Conference

Institutional and regional conferences are common opportunities for residents to present scholarly work, allowing them to develop experience across the research continuum, build their CVs for fellowship applications, and meet ACGME requirements for scholarly activity. The COVID-19 pandemic required strict restrictions on in-person gatherings, forcing many institutions and professional organizations to cancel conferences planned for Spring 2020. We sought to rapidly create a straightforward, virtual way for residents to submit e-posters and for judges to score them so that we could preserve local scholarly activity opportunities for residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Working in an interdisciplinary team of physicians, administrators and librarians, we quickly created an online format for residents to present their scholarly work. Emeritus faculty and former faculty no longer working clinically were happy to participate from home as judges. Involving our librarian colleagues proved to be beneficial, as they seamlessly navigated various technology options to create our virtual conferences quickly and efficiently while prioritizing a user-friendly experience for end-users.

Presenter: Jillian Catalanotti, MD, MPH, FACP, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences

P019: Code ESCape (Educational & Skills Curriculum): Using Gamification & Simulation to Teach & Test Medical Emergency Concepts to Internal Medicine Residents

Playing a game creates a dynamic peer group educational environment that enhances retention of knowledge, improves communication, and builds teamwork. An Escape Room (ER) is a competitive timed adventure game that is carried out in a confined room, where players must discover clues and solve a mystery. Escape rooms share similarities with the clinical environment and can provide an opportunity to emphasize skill building and teach ACGME core competencies through puzzle style team exercise.


Preliminary data from our internal medicine ER showed improvement in learning and resident satisfaction It is established that mannequin-based (SIM) and computer-based simulation are useful adjuncts for advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) training. The activity was highly enjoyed by all the residents with considerable positive feedback in terms of satisfaction and aid in medical education. Adding ER to SIM will help us ascertain if it is a useful adjunct teaching tool for diagnosis and management of ACLS and medical emergency situations.


Adding the ER to SIM will help us ascertain if it is a useful adjunct teaching tool for diagnosis and management of ACLS and medical emergency situations. With this innovative, comprehensive activity comprising ER and SIM, we will be able to provide an interactive, thought-provoking, hands-on teaching platform that allows learners to enhance their communication skills and comfort with life-threatening emergencies. Additionally, this experiential play offers an opportunity for engagement that will encourage bonding and   subsequently improve resident well-being.

Presenter: Aakanksha Khanna, MD, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo

P020: Escape MD: Medicine Edition Using Escape Room as a gamified educational and skill building tool for Internal Medicine Residents and Medical Students

An Escape Room is a competitive mental and physical adventure game, carried out in a confined room, constrained by time where a team of players must discover clues and solve a mystery to escape a locked room. Escape rooms share several similarities to the clinical environment: such as gathering information, working in a high stress environment, multi-tasking and solving the problems in a timely manner. Escape rooms can also give the participants a chance to not only reflect on self-knowledge and skills but also to learn from knowledge and skills brought by other members of the team. A shift is needed from a teacher centered approach to a more learner centered approach in medical education and new ways of teaching professional skills is needed. We were able to successfully create a medical themed escape room that created an interactive, fun, psychologically safe, yet competitive learning environment. Preliminary post survey data showed positive outcomes in satisfaction, fun and learning. Using the guide map, we were able to successfully duplicate the activity multiple times and have now conducted it with over 250 fourth year medical students. We are in the process of expanding this platform to be utilized in several different ways.

Presenter: Aakanksha Khanna, MD, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at the University at Buffalo

P035: NoteSense: Development of a Machine Learning Algorithm for Feedback on Clinical Reasoning Documentation

Clinical reasoning is a core component of medical training, yet learners receive little feedback on their clinical reasoning documentation. We are developing a machine learning algorithm to provide feedback to learners on their clinical reasoning documentation. To create this algorithm, note quality must first be rated by “gold standard” human rating. Here, we describe 1) the creation and validation of a revised IDEA assessment tool, building on an existing tool for assessment of clinical reasoning documentation and 2) the development of a machine learning algorithm—a predictive model that will generate output on quality of clinical reasoning documentation.


Presenter: Verity Schaye, MD, MHPE, New York University School of Medicine

P093: Integrating Humanism into Ward Teaching:  Creation of a Team-Based Electronic Learning Record (ELR)

Physicians traditionally utilize EMR to communicate amongst themselves regarding patient care. There is as of yet no standard format in which to capture teaching points and illness scripts generated by teams. We created a unique supplement to teaching rounds (&quot;ELR&quot;), using a widely available digital learning platform to promote team-based writing.

Presenter: Chase Webber, DO, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

Wellness & Resiliency

P056: Beyond the Hidden Curriculum: An Innovation to Preserve Empathy in Third Year Medical Students

The literature shows that self-perceived empathy declines significantly during medical training, particularly during the third year of medical school. The “hidden curriculum” encountered on the wards is one of the factors that contributes to this phenomenon. While studies suggest that training in communication skills can be effective in combating empathy decline, this type of education is heavily concentrated in the first two years of medical school and rarely re-visited during the clinical portion of training. We introduced a one-hour interactive educational session focused on empathy and patient communication skills into the third-year curriculum for students training at a large, academic medical center. The communication skills portion of the session utilized the AIDET framework as these techniques have been shown to effectively communicate empathy to patients. The session was delivered to 392 third year medical students over a three-year time period and data was gathered via a post-session anonymous survey. Students found the session valuable, anticipated the patient communication techniques would be easy to incorporate, and felt they had a greater understanding of empathy and how to effectively communicate it. We considered the intervention a success as well as a proof of concept that interactive educational sessions incorporated into the third-year curriculum are one way to help address empathy decline. A similar intervention could be easily implemented at other medical schools, ideally as part of a multi-pronged approach to preserve empathy – rather than leaving it all to the “hidden curriculum”.

Presenter: Meghan Sebasky, MD, , University of California, San Diego School of Medicine

P074: Using a "Concussion Protocol" to Mitigate Burnout

We have instituted a “Concussion Protocol” with the aim of early detection and early intervention when a resident is in distress with the hope of preventing subsequent decompensation.  The “Protocol”, like that used in the NFL, takes the decision for time out from duty out of the hands of the individual.  It is also possible that through initiating this protocol, the resident involved can be trained to learn signs of approaching burnout and develop healthy responses to later use independently.  With this poster we present details of the Protocol and results from the first year of initiation.  Briefly, the protocol begins when potential “triggers” of a stress reaction in the resident are noted by their supervising physician.  Then a screening tool that we designed is implemented which prompts the next steps to be taken.  If a threshold is reached, the resident will be required to take “time out” from patient care with guidance on how to regroup before returning.  During that period the supervising physician(s) will take over all patient care responsibilities and the resident will need to be reassessed by the Program Leadership prior to return.  After one year the Protocol is known to have been used 10 times.  Many of these have led to actions that would not have been taken without this in place and all incidents to date have had very favorable outcomes.

Presenter: Michael Picchioni, MD, , University of Massachusetts Medical School-Baystate

P085: Project 6-55 Stories: Enhancing Humanism in Medical Student Clinical Training

Narrative medicine and mindful practice offer a rich framework for promoting patient-centered care and clinician self-care.  Incorporating the humanities within medical education is imperative to promote a connection to one’s patients and colleagues and cultivate professional identity development. Reflective writing can be a revealing and rewarding experience for learners on their medical training journey. Our 6-word and 55-word story workshop in the Medicine Clerkship uses "micro" literary formats to engage learners in guided reflective writing and collective professional identity discovery.  Analyzing stories for thematic content informs educational leaders for programmatic strategies to nurture humanism and healing for trainees.  Our poster describes the Project 6-55 workshop and qualitative evaluation from 462 students who note positive attitude changes toward the value of reflective writing as a tool for personal growth, value of writing in clinical teaching, and likelihood to engage in future writing after experiencing the workshop.  Story analysis of 207 stories revealed students were most reflective about patient oriented themes (50%) comprised of patient illness experience (18%), patient-clinician connection (17%), and mortality (15%), supporting appreciation of life stories, emotional challenges in provision of medical care, and empathic connection to patients.  The second most common theme to emerge was related to professional identity development (19%). Qualitative feedback about the workshop included: strengthened peer connections, feelings of peer validation, increased self-awareness, and overall appreciation for a beneficial reflective exercise.

Presenter: Kristy Kosub, MD, , University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long School of Medicine

P089: A Resident-led Workshop to Teach Medical Students an Approach to Microaggressions Using GRIT

Studies and various surveys, including the AAMC Graduation Questionnaire, demonstrate students experience discrimination, including microaggressions, in the medical school learning environment. Creating a setting where students cannot only share these experiences but also gain communication skills in addressing or debriefing these events is pivotal in reducing bias and transforming culture. At UT Southwestern, we implemented a resident-led workshop for clinical medical students to equip students with a specific framework to recognize if it is safe and how to address microaggressions when they occur.

Presenter: Reeni Abraham, MD, , University of Texas Southwestern Medical School

P094: Development of “Safe Faculty”: A Second Victim Support Program for IM Residents

The Vanderbilt Internal Medicine Residency recognized a pattern of distress among residents after an adverse patient event as the second victim phenomenon. In response to identified needs from a survey, the residency created the “Safe Faculty” program in order to provide more support for residents after an adverse event. This poster will describe this second victim support program, the process of building it, the results thus far, and the next steps for the program.

Presenter: Shannon Skinner, MD, , Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

P108: Using a 4+1 Scheduling System and Residency Learning Communities to Improve Wellness and Scholarly Activity: 4 Years of Data and Including Our Preliminary Interns

Four years ago, we implemented 4+1 scheduling system into our residency program. This change allowed us to implement several innovations which have improved wellness and scholarly activity. We divided our 84 categorical residents into five “Firms”, which serve as resident learning communities. Each Firm has an assigned APD and Master Clinician Educator (MCE). The APDs focus on evaluation review, career mentoring, and coaching/remediation. The MCEs mentor each resident on required scholarly assignments. With the initial success of 4+1, our preliminary interns asked to be included in 4+1 scheduling, which we accomplished in AY2017-18. We are one of only a few programs to incorporate preliminary interns into X+Y scheduling. That same year, we initiated a Firm Cup Competition. For AY2018-19, we made Journal Club a firm-based activity. We have collected year-end data for all 4 years and have shown continued growth in our residents’ feeling that our current 4+1 Firm Model has improved 1) the overall wellness of the program, 2) the residents’ individual wellness, 3) the quality of their scholarly activity, and 4) the identification of a mentor. Preliminary interns have rated their involvement in 4+1 scheduling and firm-based activities highly. We have made changes each year based on resident feedback with continued goal of improvement. Going forward, we look to differentiate needs of categorical vs. preliminary interns in this model, investigate individual firm differences, determine best practices for integrating our new Primary Care residents into this system for AY2020-21, and increase integration between our UME and GME Learning Communities.

Presenter: Elizabeth Murphy, MD, , University of Massachusetts Medical School


Select the section below to review the programmatic innovation posters in each topic area.


P009: Variations in Student Performance Data in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE)

One of the primary responsibilities of residency program directors (PDs) is the recruitment of a new class of interns. PDs wade through a multitude of data in order to select students for interview and eventually to rank. Of these, the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE) ranks near the top in terms of importance. Prompted by the 2016 recommendations of the AAMC MSPE Task Force, the medical education community has witnessed a progressive change in the content of the MSPE. As reported by Giang, the majority of US medical school have adopted the task force guidelines.  While this adoption is occurring, wide variability still exists in the actual content and display of data within the MSPE. To better understand the variations in data, MSPEs from >95% of US Medical Schools in the 2019-20 academic year were analyzed. The authors will present the results of the analyses, which will reveal the current state of reporting of student performance data in the preclinical curriculum, core clerkships, as well as the fourth year. The variations in clerkship grades as well as overall comparative performance (i.e. the “adjective”) will be highlighted. Lastly, the presenters will report the variations in authorship of the MSPE. Understanding the full spectrum of data variations has several potential benefits: 1) A tool for program directors to use in faculty development; 2) Beginning a conversation to enhance the delivery of information from UME to GME.

Presenter: Judith Brenner, MD, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra Northwell

P078:  Demystifying Chief Resident Salary

Demystifying chief resident salary: A survey to better understand the national trend of chief resident salaries and duties.

Presenter: Bhavana Bhaya, MD, University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Medicine


P003:  Developing Validity Evidence for a New OSCE Evaluating a Communication Skills Curriculum for Subinterns

This poster describes the process of developing validity evidence for a subintern observed structured clinical encounter (OSCE) assessing students’ skills in handoffs, requesting consultations and discharges. During the OSCE, residents and faculty scored subinterns’ performance in verbal (handoff, consultation) and written (sign-out, discharge summary) skills. We used pilot data to refine the OSCE and then prospectively evaluated the OSCE’s performance in collecting valid data.  We collected and analyzed narrative data to assess for content and response process validity.

After the pilot, validity threats were mitigated by revising cases and scoring rubrics to improve congruence with the construct for each case and station; revising and clarifying instructions to students and raters, rater training, electronic data collection templates, and procedures for OSCE administration. We developed case-specific rubrics and added reference standards to facilitate consistent scoring. We adjusted station timing.  Digitizing forms and training materials heightened test security. In terms of content validity, responses from faculty experts, resident raters, and student participants indicated that content coverage and difficulty were appropriate for a formative subintern exam. Thought processes of raters and students about training and instructions determined that these were correctly understood, the OSCE was a familiar type of assessment, the exam length and complexity were reasonable, the case-specific scoring rubrics were readily applied following training to standards, and the exam was formative.  We concluded that initial evidence supported the hypothesis that the OSCE yields valid data to formatively assess our curriculum for subinterns.

Presenter: Anita Kusnoor, MD, FACP, Baylor College of Medicine


P025:  Does Introducing a Post-Rotation Examination Improve the Study Habits and Increase Knowledge Retention of an Internal Medicine Resident?

We sought to formally evaluate whether internal medicine residents who were required to take a test at the end of a rotation would have superior medical knowledge retention compared to those residents who did not have a rotation posttest. We also assessed if post testing changed study behavior during the rotation. Formal studies looking at the "testing effect" in Internal Medicine residents have not been done to date. Through this year-long study on five core rotations, we did not find significant evidence that post testing leads to either increased medical knowledge or a change in behavior in our trainees.

Presenter: Laura Ozark, MD, FACP, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine


P073:  Do Acting Interns Need Residents? A Comparison of Skill Development on Resident versus Non-Resident Teams

As acting interns (AIs), students are placed in the intern role to develop skills important for internship. At our institution, this has traditionally occurred on inpatient teaching teams that include residents. Because of crowded teaching teams our AIs often reported limited patient contacts. We created a non-resident AI team with one attending and two AIs. To determine whether similar goals were being achieved in this new model, we compared student comfort level with various intern skills between AIs on resident and non-resident teams. A pre- and post-rotation assessment tool asked students to rate their comfort level with nine core intern skills: calling consults, documenting assessment and plan, choosing appropriate antibiotics, writing discharge summaries, performing cross-cover, writing admission orders, performing hand-off, evaluating new patients, and discussing plans with patients. Students rated on a five-point scale from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. AIs on non-resident teams reported greater skill development in two skills (developing an assessment and plan and writing a discharge summary) and were no worse in any skill compared to acting interns on traditional resident teams. This study supports a non-resident team model as an effective option for AIs. This model can help offload crowded teaching teams, add additional acting intern experiences, and add attending teaching opportunities.

Presenter: Adam Gray, MD, University of Kentucky College of Medicine


P086:  Working up Common Internal Medicine Problems: Are Students Considering the Cost?

Everyone has a role in managinghealthcare costs. We compared the costs of diagnostic tests ordered by medical students to the cost of tests ordered by an expert provider.  Student costs were notably higher in all encounters, prompting us to identify curricular opportunities for deliberate teaching of this concept.

Presenter: Karen Szauter, MD, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston School of Medicine


P102: Resident Report: Understanding the Value and Learning

Resident report is a favored curricular element of medicine and pediatric residency training programs across the country, but we lack understanding of the learning that occurs or its value in resident education. In this study, we used a qualitative, grounded theory approach to analyze data from focus groups and observations in three medical specialties. Coding and grouping were done iteratively by two study members to ultimately develop three themes from the data: (1) Report is a preferred and valuable learning conference because of its practical real-life application, diagnostic reasoning focus, and structured interactivity. (2) The learning is perceived to increase when report is led by a strong facilitator who effectively asks questions and paces the case, and the case is accompanied by preconceived teaching points. (3) Residents are motivated to attend and engage because of the casual environment and the opportunity to socialize with and learn from peers and faculty. Detailed analysis of each theme provides specific recommendations for enhancing the educational approach to support resident learning.

Presenter: Amber Deptola, MD, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine


Diversity, Equity & Inclusion

P075:  Going Against the Norm: Assessing the Impact of Gender, Clinical Setting, and Skill Domains on Resident Assessment of Faculty Performance

Despite multiple studies of the impact of gender on evaluation of medical student and residents, fewer studies have assessed the impact of gender on evaluations of general internal medicine (GIM) faculty by residents. Similarly, no prior studies have analyzed how gender-based differences are impacted by setting (i.e., inpatient versus outpatient) or how disparities are impacted by specific competencies being assessed. Thus, we sought to understand the role that faculty gender plays in resident assessment of teaching quality on our GIM services, including the potential effect of clinical setting and the competency being assessed.

In our cohort, male GIM faculty were rated as having higher overall teaching ability compared to their female colleagues. Both the magnitude and breadth of gender disparities were impacted by the setting of evaluation with female faculty faring worse in the inpatient setting. An analysis of specific ACGME competencies revealed male faculty in GIM score higher than female faculty in terms of performance in all competencies except PC and ICS. In the inpatient setting, men were rated higher across all six competency domains.

Given the role teaching evaluations can play in faculty advancement, these findings highlight the need to recognize and account for the possible impact of gender disparities when reviewing and interpreting the results of faculty teaching evaluations, especially when they are being used to determine compensation, teaching time and promotion.

Presenter: Jennifer Lukela, MD, University of Michigan Medical School

P096:  Transgender Health Care: Evaluation of the Perception of Competence and Comfort Level Among Internal Medicine Residents

Transgender Health Care: Evaluation of the perception of competence and comfort level in the provision of medical care to transgender patients among internal medicine residents in a community hospital before and after receiving education on the topic

Presenter: Beatriz Martinez Quintero, MD, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine

Faculty Development

P027: Measurable Gains in Critical Areas of Faculty Performance by Targeted Interventions

Graduate medical education has a pivotal role in setting the precedent for the future of health care delivery through its residents' training. Our internal medicine department undertook a faculty development project to improve faculty performance in four crucial areas of resident education: Goal setting, the learning environment, providing feedback, and professionalism. An anonymous 14 question survey was distributed to all internal medicine residents after completing each rotation to evaluate the faculty. After one year of data collection, areas of improvement were identified as goal-setting and providing formative and summative feedback. Interventions were then targeted towards these areas including: creating videos demonstrating goal setting and feedback styles, an individual meeting with a faculty development expert, and participation in small group seminars and lectures offered by the division of education to practice the new skills. Surveys were collected for a subsequent year and then compared using a two-sample T-Test. Results indicated a highly statistically significant improvement (p<0.001) in all three categories. Our study demonstrated that identifying critical areas of improvement in faculty development followed by focused interventions with brief videos of behavior modeling, feedback to faculty with a focus on expectations, and participation in regularly scheduled lectures and seminars resulted in a statistically significant improvement in all key performance areas of our faculty.

Presenter: Nicole Krolak, DO, Marshfield Clinic


P057:  “There is a lot of change afoot”: A qualitative study of faculty perceptions of the elimination of tiered grades with increased emphasis on feedback in core clerkships

Due to challenges with fairness, equity, learning, and wellness in core clerkships, the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine eliminated core clerkship tiered grades and added work-based assessments. We used a Concerns Based Adoption Model to explore how faculty perceive this change. After eliminating tiered grades and increasing direct observation and feedback in core clerkships, we aimed to capture the process of change by exploring how faculty alter their professional practices accordingly, and perceive the consequences.


Presenter: Cindy Lai, MD, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine



P015:  Internal Medicine Student Education on Direct-Care Hospital Medicine Services: Results of a National Survey

Purpose: To examine the use, practices, perspectives, and barriers of teaching models on direct-care hospitalist services (DCHS) among U.S. internal medicine (IM) clerkship directors.

Methods: The Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM) conducted its annual survey of clerkship directors in 2018. Survey items pertaining to DCHS were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The authors used qualitative techniques to analyze free text responses.

Results: The survey response rate was 82% (110/134). Fifty (45.5%) respondents reported having DCHS-based teaching models at their institution. Of the 60 (54.5%) respondents not using DCHS, 37 (61.7%) are considering them. Compared with traditional teaching services, 40 (90.9%) respondents reported DCHS students work with “about the same” or “fewer” faculty, and 39 (88.6%) respondents reported students cover “about the same” or “more” patients. Of respondents using DCHS for clerkship education, 33% reported that DCHS represent the student’s only inpatient exposure. Although 70% of clerkships with DCHS models have some form of faculty development, most (66.7%) are not specific to the needs of direct-care hospitalists teaching core clerkship students. Systems and stakeholder considerations are identified thematic challenges of DCHS.

Conclusions: Nearly half of U.S. IM clerkship directors report placing students on DCHS, and 61.7% of the remaining programs are considering such models. DCHS represent the IM clerkship student’s only type of inpatient rotation exposure for a third of programs. Further study of this model and structured curricula paired with faculty development are needed to ensure its future success.

Presenter: Amulya Nagarur, MD, Harvard Medical School Massachusetts General Hospital


P017: How an Addiction Curriculum in Residency Impacts Residents’ Perception of Treating OUD

The number of people with an Opioid Use Disorder continues to increase, yet access to medication for OUD is still very limited. Historically, addiction was primarily treated within the specialty of psychiatry. Currently, psychiatrists alone cannot address the needs of the many people with OUD. Many patients with OUD are seen in the emergency room, hospital or primary care settings, positioning physicians in these settings to be first-line prescribers of medication-assisted therapy (MAT) for these patients. Despite being the standard of care, physicians are still reluctant to offer these medications to patients, resulting in limited access to MAT for patients. In an effort to overcome physician-centered barriers associated with prescribing MAT, we developed and implemented a week long Addiction Curriculum for PGY2 and PGY3 internal medicine residents. Components of the curriculum included shadowing social workers counseling patients and physicians who were prescribing MAT, reading relevant research papers, and didactics with a physician with expertise in MAT. After completing the curriculum, the residents participated in an hour long audio-recorded interview to evaluate their experiences with the curriculum. Two major themes emerged: 1) Increasing understanding of and compassion for patients with OUD 2) inspiring a change in practice .

Presenter: Maria Robles, MD, Indiana University School of Medicine


P018: The Role of Compensation and Job Hours on the Popularity of Internal Medicine Subspecialties: a Population-Based Analysis

Multiple factors affect an individual’s selection of medical specialty. Existing literature is limited by reliance on self-reporting, confounders, temporal, and geographical constraints. Few assessments of population-level decisional factors affecting specialty selection have been performed.

This is the first study to use objective, population level data on specialty selection from the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) and physician salary data from the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) to evaluate the role of compensation on Internal Medicine subspecialty popularity.

Longitudinal match data was used to evaluate the popularity of the nine largest Internal

Medicine fellowships using a formula of US graduate applicants per position available to define popularity. MGMA salary data in each specialty were weighted by the proportion of providers in academics and non-academics. Several burnout measures were evaluated from the annual Medscape Physician Lifestyle and Burnout surveys. Univariate and multivariate regression modelling were conducted using an AI modeling algorithm.

Univariate linear regression showed specialty physician mean compensation to be highly associated with specialty popularity. Burnout related variables were not significantly correlated. An AI-based optimization algorithm was used to evaluate for complex, non-linear relationships

within the burnout and compensation data. A multiple regression model was created. This model proved highly predictive (R^2 = 0.8719, p < 0.001). Several years of data were withheld for sensitivity analysis, and the model remained valid.

This data indicates physician compensation and job hours have a significant, non-linear, and predictive relationship with Internal Medicine specialty popularity.

Presenter: Michael Burk, MD, Indiana University School of Medicine


P038:  Characteristics of Internal Medicine Primary Care Tracks

With continued concern for primary care shortage nationally, we were interested in the effects of primary care tracks on this problem. Our poster describes traits and characteristics of primary care tracks.


Presenter: Lisa Kearns, MD, Ohio State University College of Medicine


P044: Leadership Experiences of Internal Medicine Residents: A Needs Assessment for Leadership Curricula

This qualitative multi-institution study describes categorical Internal Medicine residents' perceptions of and experiences with leadership with the aim of guiding future leadership curriculum development. Voluntary, anonymous, structured interviews were conducted with fourteen residents across four institutions, and thematic analysis yielded six main themes. First, residents perceive “leadership” as related to formal, assigned, hierarchical roles. Second, residents identify themselves as leaders primarily within the inpatient clinical setting. Third, residents struggle to identify where leadership skills are currently being taught in their residency program. Fourth, residents identify the following skills as important for effective leadership: clinical competence (necessary but not sufficient), emotional intelligence, and communication. Fifth, residents express a desire for additional leadership development. Finally, residents describe learning leadership through an informal apprentice model and prefer explicit, interactive formats (e.g., discussion, coaching, and reflection). Our results indicate that though residents desire leadership development, they report these skills are not often explicitly taught, labeled, or evaluated. As residency programs build leadership curricula, this resident perspective is valuable in optimizing engagement and matching need; to this end, we propose the following: 1) explicitly label leadership training within an “everyday leadership” framework to signal these skills as important and necessary, 2) dovetail leadership coaching with daily teaching workflow and feedback structures and 3) implement faculty development initiatives to allow for appropriate feedback and evaluation of these skills.



Presenter: Maureen Lyons, MD, Saint Louis University School of Medicine


P050:  Reducing Unnecessary Inpatient Labs in a Teaching Hospital

Repetitive labs can lead to increased health risks and medical errors for patients and a higher frequency of fatigue and burnout for physicians. Physicians repeat labs in stable patients because fear of future abnormal labs, laboratory evidence to back clinical suspicion, defensive medicine, monitor the disease process, and clarify thought process to make medical decisions. As such, a lot of anxiety can be put at ease and even avoided for both patients and physicians. This project demonstrates that laboratory testing is expensive, costs can be reduced by ordering daily labs only if necessary, patient safety and satisfaction can be increased, medical errors can be reduced, and physicians’ time can be saved and well-being can be promoted while activating a system-wide health care change.


Presenter: Ronak Ghiya, MD, Texas A&M College of Medicine-Scott and White Medical Center (Round Rock)


P052:  The Effect of a Modified X+Y Model to Resident Education, Productivity, and Patient Care: An Internal Medicine Program Experience

The X+Y scheduling model is a novel system that segregates inpatient blocks from outpatient blocks, preventing conflict between inpatient and clinic responsibilities. This balance results in improved graduate medical education, patient care, and resident wellness. Numerous variations of the X+Y model have emerged throughout the years. Upon transitioning to the X+Y model, our program implemented a modification to the ambulatory blocks, which resulted in the addition of protected study, research, administrative, didactic and procedural training, and wellness times during the ambulatory blocks, while in compliance with the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education training requirements. This study determined the effect of the modified X+Y model on resident productivity, education, and patient care.

Presenter: Gian Galura, MD, Texas Tech University HSC El Paso/Hospitals of Providence Transmountain Campus


P053:  Exploring the Effect of Reason for Clinical Competency Committee Referral on Internship Outcome

There are various reasons why a student is referred to a clinical competency committee during the internal medicine clerkship. How are the different categories of reason for referral associated with post-graduate outcome?

Presenter: Ellen Im, MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine


P065:  Scripted Morning Reports May Achieve Different Educational Goals Than Unscripted Morning Reports: Results from a VA Multicenter Study

Morning report is a central activity in internal medicine resident education that has evolved over time from its original purpose and format. We conducted a prospective observational study at ten Veterans Affairs academic medical centers to characterize case-based morning reports. We hypothesized that the structure and content of reports may differ if cases are scripted (i.e. prepared in advance by the moderator) or unscripted. Of 198 observed morning reports, 169 were scripted and 29 were unscripted. Scripted reports presented a known diagnosis, had more didactic time, and had a program director or associate program director present more often than unscripted reports. Unscripted reports were more often presented by residents than chief residents, spent more time on history, data gathering, and differential diagnosis than scripted reports. Our study suggests contemporary morning reports are more often scripted with a focus on delivering guideline-based didactic material while unscripted reports may focus more on clinical reasoning.

Presenter: Anand Jagannath, MD, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine


P072:  Development of Self-Assessment in a Simulation-Based Central Line Insertion Course

We hypothesized that a simulation-based curriculum can improve learners’ self-assessment of central line insertion ability. To explore how curricular efforts affect self-assessment, we studied residents’ development of self-assessment of their central line insertion ability in a simulation-based course. Across three years of a simulation-based curriculum, residents improved their agreement with trained observers, though with a tendency to overestimate when they did disagree. This is counter to arguments in the health professions education research that self-assessment abilities are inherently poor and resistant to improvement. Our results suggest that self-assessment can be developed, if it is anchored to specific learning objectives, repeated skill assessment with feedback, and clear “gold standard” performance definition. Task ability is related to but distinct from self-assessment ability, making both suitable as criteria for evaluating simulation-based curricula; that is, if learners over- or under-estimate their abilities after a course, this may indicate need for clearer objectives or enhanced task practice and feedback. Future research should evaluate whether self-assessment in simulation translates to enhanced discernment and self-regulated learning in the clinical environment.


Presenter: Laura Thomas, MD, University of Kansas School of Medicine


P076:  Can Incoming Internal Medicine Interns Recognize Medical Emergencies? Implementation of a Vignette-Based Cross-Cover Assessment

Internal medicine interns must be able to accurately recognize an urgent clinical situation and notify their supervising resident. However, these skills remain very difficult to assess. It is often assumed that medical knowledge is a surrogate for these skills, yet this remains untested. We designed a vignette-based assessment using cross-cover scenarios to determine if graduating medical students can accurately assess clinical urgency and appropriately notify their supervising resident, and whether or not these skills were associated with medical knowledge or confidence. 58 senior medical students enrolled in an internal medicine residency preparation course and 22 experts (experienced residents and faculty) completed the assessment. We retrospectively defined three groups of students: those who tended to underestimate potential clinical urgency (“harm underestimators”), those who accurately estimated urgency, and those who tended to overestimate urgency (“harm overestimators”) of moderate or high-urgency scenarios as defined by the expert group. Interestingly, there was no significant correlation with medical knowledge score amongst the three groups (p=0.77), nor confidence to manage the scenarios independently (p=0.18). Importantly, students who underestimated urgency were less likely to report they would notify their supervising resident compared to those who overestimated urgency (p=0.001) and were less likely to report reporting to the bedside to evaluate a patient (61% vs. 75% of the time, p=0.010). The lack of correlation between medical knowledge and ability to estimate urgency raises questions about the extensive use of medical knowledge tests to define competency prior to graduation, and implies that more targeted assessments may be necessary.

Presenter: Lauren Heidemann, MD, University of Michigan Medical School


P077:  Predictors of Key Features Exam Performance for Internal Medicine Subinterns

The Key Features Exam (KFE) format assesses clinical reasoning skills, focusing on the most challenging diagnostic and management steps within clinical cases. Aquifer Internal Medicine’s KFE is based on the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine core curriculum; initial feedback shows that students feel this exam format relates to real clinical practice. Validity was established based on administration to 3rd year medical students.

We used correlation, t-test, and ANOVA to investigate the relationship between Aquifer KFE scores and NBME subject exam scores, specialty choice, and time of year for 91 final year students enrolled in a required inpatient Internal Medicine subinternship within their longitudinal learning team.

We predicted that KFE performance would correlate with clinical performance and NBME scores; while KFE performance did correlate strongly with NBME performance, there was no statistically significant correlation with clinical performance ratings. Based on concerns from students regarding the required nature of this clerkship, particularly the timing in relation to interview season, we also predicted that students interested in pursuing Internal Medicine and students completing the clerkship prior to residency interview season would have stronger KFE performance. However, there was no difference in students’ performance based on their specialty interest or time of year of clerkship completion. These findings did not support students’ concerns about the timing or required nature of their subinternship negatively impacting their performance.

Presenter: Emily Haury, MD, MHPE, FAAP, FACP, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine


P080:  Clinical Competency Assessment of Key History and Physical Exam Skills Amongst Medical Students on Clinical Rotations

This pilot study used a novel clinical competency exam, borrowed from the MRCP(UK) PACES format, to test clinical competency of medical students on clinical rotations. We plan to describe our research findings in more detail, using descriptive statistics as well as a kappa analysis for inter-rater reliability. We feel that this clinical competency exam is novel and differs from OSCEs for three reasons - first, because two faculty evaluators decreases risk of bias in the evaluative process. Second, because the hands-on, formative feedback between faculty and students with a patient but without the clinical time pressures is truly meaningful, and lastly, we plan to incorporate more real patients and pathology into our physical exam stations so students can evaluate actual pathology rather than simulated. We hope to meet with medical educators who critique and offer much-needed insight as we move towards a larger study and potentially incorporate this exam style into the evaluative curriculum for specific clinical rotations.


Presenter: Nathaniel Warner, MD, University of North Carolina School of Medicine


P098:  Successful Implementation of a Newly Developed Assessment Tool for Evaluation of Third Year Internal Medicine Electronic Progress Notes that Focuses on EHR Stewardship and Effective Communication

We describe an assessment instrument designed for medical students that evaluates the quality of clinical documentation in electronic progress notes. This tool is uniquely designed for both the traditional elements of communication in a SOAP note, but significantly updated for evaluation of appropriate use of electronic technology in the effective expression clinical documentation. In this abstract, we describe the successful large scale implementation of this instrument in the 3rd year Internal Medicine Clerkship at the Wake Forest School of Medicine. We believe this tool adaptable to outside institutions and contributes to the body of knowledge and tools available in undergraduate & graduate medical education for enhancing evaluation of the skills necessary for proficiency in EHR use.

Presenter: Joseph Cristiano, MD, FACP, Wake Forest School of Medicine of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center


P100:  Acute Heart Failure Advanced Life Support (AHFALS): Curriculum Innovation for the Management of Heart Failure

To date, no U.S. residency training program has established curricular focus on streamlined education for guideline based management of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Our institution has implemented a novel training course, Acute Heart Failure Advanced Life Support (AHFALS), in collaboration with Sociedade de Cardiologia Estado de Sao Paolo. This four-hour course provides a standardized, algorithmic approach integrating the latest guideline based management of ADHF utilizing interactive patient simulation like Advanced Cardiac Life Support. The interactive training model teaches appropriate management of ADHF across the continuum of care; including emergency department, inpatient care, and outpatient care. Our institution has trained residents in internal and emergency medicine over the past two years utilizing this training course. Data reveals a statistically significant improvement in pre/post exam scores, high resident satisfaction with a preference for training using this interactive course verses lecture based training.

Presenter: Lauren Sykes Eyadiel, PA-C, Wake Forest School of Medicine of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center


Wellness & Resiliency

P013:  "Managing Conflict"-Ethics Debriefing Sessions in the Internal Medicine Clerkship

Medical students are exposed to a variety of ethical dilemmas, often without adequate training. Students may feel unable to handle these scenarios, leading to moral distress. To understand ethical dilemmas encountered during clinical care, we developed a structured assignment where students are asked to describe ethical dilemmas encountered while caring for patients during their Internal Medicine (IM) Clerkship. We then added interactive small-group debriefing sessions, where student discuss ethically challenging situations/experiences encountered during the clerkship, providing opportunities for peer discussion and development of strategies for management of ethically challenging situations. Students were asked to discuss their individual ethical vignettes in smaller subgroups, and then to select one case to present to the larger group. Presentations included case synopsis, feelings/emotions elicited, obligations required, and management strategies. Ethical issues relating to presented cases were identified from the following: Shared Decision Making, Patient Privacy and Confidentiality, Lack of Professionalism, and Social/Organizational Ethics.

Presenter: Melissa Armas, PhD, Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine


P030:  Resident reflections early in the COVID19 pandemic: Fear, hope and everything in between

In this poster, the authors describe a reflective writing exercise about the early experience of residents during the COVI19 pandemic.  The authors used qualitative analysis methods to identify themes of importance that arose form the words of the residents.  Residents described emotions ranging from fear to hope.  They most frequently wrote about their fear of bringing COVID-19 home to family/friends.  Residents felt isolated as a result which created a gap in their baseline support systems.  The authors propose that residency programs are in a unique position to fill those gaps and become a source of more personal, human support in times of crisis when trainees most need it.

Presenter: Kathlyn Fletcher, MD, MA, Medical College of Wisconsin


P033:  "We Don't Really Talk About It" Role Modeling and Coping With Patient Deaths in the ICU

Results of a qualitative study utilizing interviews of internal medicine residents and their ICU attendings about coping with patient deaths are presented. While there are some similarities, the differences in how residents and attendings respond to a patient death may be creating gaps in role modeling that are limiting our effectiveness in teaching residents how to cope with patient deaths. A case is made for the usefulness of team debriefings as a potential strategy to bridge these gaps and address resident concerns after a patient death.

Presenter: Heather Hartman-Hall, PhD, MedStar Health (Baltimore)


P041: High Mindfulness is Protective Against Burnout During Internal Medicine Internship Year

The poster will delineate the relationships between resilience, mindfulness and burnout during the course of intern year.


Presenter: Oana Tomescu, MD, PhD, Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania


P059:  “Let’s Debrief About That”: A Qualitative Study of Emotional Distress and the Role of Peer Support During Internship

This is a qualitative study of contributors to interns’ emotional distress and ways that peer support from senior residents impacts intern well-being, performed with a sample of PGY-2 Residents at one internal medicine residency program. We identified five themes around emotional distress and peer support, including the universality of emotional distress during internship, contributors to that distress, and that near-peers deliver peer support regularly, on an ad-hoc basis. We identified a curricular gap for learning formal and effective peer support strategies.

Presenter: Kendra Moore, MD, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine


P103:  The Impact of Mindset and Gender on Stereotype Perception in Internal Medicine Residents

Although the number of women in medicine has increased over time, women continue to be underrepresented in leadership positions. Stereotype threat is likely to be one contributing factor, but it is not clear whether mindset and stereotype threat are associated. Our study aimed to examine the correlation between mindset and stereotype perception by gender. This was a non-randomized, cross-sectional survey study of categorical and primary care internal medicine residents. Stereotype threat was assessed through a series of questions about perceptions of negative stereotypes of women in medicine. Mindset was evaluated with the Theories of Intelligence Scale. A total of 86 out of 148 eligible residents responded to the survey. A significant interaction between mindset category and gender demonstrated that mindsets are differentially associated with stereotype perceptions by gender. In women, fixed mindset was associated with higher stereotype threat perception. As prior research has demonstrated an association between higher stereotype perception and poorer psychological health, interventions that foster a growth mindset among women should be investigated.

Presenter: Andrea Soares, MD, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine