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Annotated Bibliography of Evidence Based Well-Being Interventions

CHARM's Best Practice Group created this annotated collection of articles summarizing best practices to reduce burnout and improve well-being at various levels. Interventions are organized in five broad content areas:  physical health, emotional health, facilitated group efforts, active self-improvement, and finally a broad array of system and program-level changes that include organizational culture change.

The goal is to provide a summary of current research, not only for medical schools and residency/fellowship programs, but also for health care system leaders and policy makers at large. This bibliography is also a reminder that programs are not alone in facing these challenges and that the collective wisdom of decades of medical educators, clinicians, and researchers, as well as those currently in practice, are an extraordinary foundation for finding effective ways to optimize present and future work environments and reduce burnout in medicine.


Recent large systematic reviews of burnout intervention.

Physical Health

General, physician health-care utilization, sleep/fatigue, nutrition, and exercise

Emotional Health

Mindfulness, stress management, mind-body training, and individual counseling services

Facilitated Group Efforts

Narrative medicine, reflection, Balint, and other small group work

Active Self-Improvement

Positive psychology, communication training, and coaching/mentoring programs

Organization Transformation

Broad array of system and program-level changes